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Minggu, 24 November 2013

Paris Tourism Facts

Paris is by far the largest city in France. It is not only the capital, but the very heart of the country. Parisians set the tone for the rest of the countrymen and their views, culture and preferences also have worldwide influence. People travel to Paris from around the world to explore the city’s pretty streets, major museums, fabulous eateries and many cultural and historic sites.

Number of Tourists

The city attracts many visitors from nearby countries such as the Great Britain and Italy. Paris also attracts visitors from much further away. People from the United States visit Paris by the thousands each year. More than 20 million people in total are said to come to this city each year. A vast underground subway system and a network of buses and taxis makes it easy for the uninitiated to travel from one arrondissement (neighborhood) of Paris to another.

Hotel Rooms

Paris is home to more than 75,000 hotels rooms. Those who travel to Paris will find a wide range of accommodations. Visitors can choose from small intimate boutique hotels just up the block from the Seine, to larger hotel chains such as Ibis. There are also very grand hotels such as the Saint James Paris hotel and the Hotel de Vendome. Many hotels offer guests a full breakfast that is included in the price of the room. The city also has a network of hostels that offer minimal accommodations for those on a tiny budget.

Restaurants

Paris has roughly 8,000 restaurants. Visitors will find many cafes that offer a simple meal paired with an appropriate wine. They also may make advance reservations for upscale meals in Michelin starred restaurants such as Guy Savoy, Pierre Gagnaire or Taillavent. A traditional Parisian meal starts with a choice of appetizers such as a selection of cured meats or a soup such as vichyssoise. The meal continues with a main course such as a beef with peppercorn sauce or a coq au vin or chicken in wine sauce. A standard French dessert such as crème caramel or apple tart tatin is usually offered to guests as part of prix-fixe meal or one that offers two to three courses.

Museums

There are more than 50 museums in Paris. Visitors can see world-class Impressionist paintings at the renovated Musee d’Orsay or the three parts of the Louvre. They can explore the natural world at the City of Science and Industry Museum or see the latest modern art sensation at the Pompidou Center.

Other Attractions

Travelers can take an elevator to the top of the Eiffel Tower, walk up the steps of the Sacre Coeur or even tour the city’s sewers. Other historic sites of note include the Cathedral of Notre Dame and the 12th century Saint Chappelle filled with huge stained glass windows. Paris is home to two major parks: the Bois du Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. Each lies on the edge of the city and offers visitors a pleasant escape from concrete streets.


  •  Simple Present Tense
 
 S+Vs/es+C
 
1 Paris is by far the largest city in France.
 
The simple Present say that something was true in the past , is true in the present, and will true in the future. It used for general statements of fact.
 
2. Travelers can take an elevator to the top of the Eiffel Tower, walk up the steps of the Sacre Coeur or even tour the city’s sewers
 
The Simple Present is used to habitual or everyday activity
 
  •  Conjunction
 
-And
 People travel to Paris from around the world to explore the city’s pretty streets, major museums, fabulous eateries and many cultural and historic sites.
 
In that Sentence and connects three or more nouns, so commas are used.

 -But
It is not only the capital, but the very heart of the country
 
But is called conjunction. In that sentense use comma. Commas are usually used when connects two complete sentences.
 
  • Sentences
 
*Simple Sentences
 The city attracts many visitors from nearby countries such as the Great Britain and Italy
 
A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought

*Compound Sentences
A vast underground subway system and a network of buses and taxis makes it easy for the uninitiated to travel from one arrondissement (neighborhood) of Paris to another.
 
A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.

Minggu, 03 November 2013

The Structure of a Sentence

Remember that every clause is, in a sense, a miniature sentence. A simple sentences contains only a single clause, while a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

The Simple Sentence

The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:
Run!
Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences, because each contains only one clause:
Melt!
Ice melts.
The ice melts quickly.
The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river meltsquickly under the warm March sun.
As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long -- it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length.
The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind which children learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spoken language of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective for grabbing a reader's attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them with care: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.
When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connect them to the surrounding sentences.

The Compound Sentence

compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":
Simple
Canada is a rich country.
Simple
Still, it has many poor people.
Compound
Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.
Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers -- small children learn to use them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult to interrupt):
Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to the class, and I got to pet it, and Kate held it, and we coloured pictures of it, and it ate part of my carrot at lunch, and ...
Of course, this is an extreme example, but if you over-use compound sentences in written work, your writing might seem immature.
A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:
Montéal has better clubs, but Toronto has better cinemas.

Special Cases of Compound Sentences

There are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note. First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a co-ordinating conjunction sometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence. In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence:
compound-complex
The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the contents.
The second special case involves punctuation. It is possible to join two originally separate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicoloninstead of a co-ordinating conjunction:
Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problemwhen sober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House of Commons.
Usually, a conjunctive adverb like "however" or "consequently" will appear near the beginning of the second part, but it is not required:
The sun rises in the east; it sets in the west.

The Complex Sentence

complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least onedependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:
Simple
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
Compound
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Complex
Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is most important. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
or even
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.

Senin, 07 Oktober 2013

Reported Speech


Ø  The Definition
  • Reported speech is when you tell somebody else what you or a person said before. Distinction must be made between direct speech and reported speech. 
Ø  The Different between Direct Speech and Reported Speech
There are several differences between a sentence with direct speech and a sentence with indirect speech.
  • We no need to use quotation marks with indirect speech.
  • We have to change the tense of the verb.
  • We have to change the pronouns and determiners.

Example:

Dialogue                                    Reported form

“Let’s go out for a walk,”           She suggested going out for a walk.
“That mobile is mine”                          He claimed that that mobile was him.
Ø  Some Important Rules to Report the Dialogue:

A. Pronouns:
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech (ReportedSpeech)
I, you
he, she, it
my, mine, your, yours
his, her, hers, its
we
they
our, ours
their, theirs
us
them

B. Tense:
Direct Speech (speaker’s words)
Indirect Speech (Reporter or Listener)
Present tense
Past tense
am, is, are
was, were
make, makes
made
am / is / are eating
was / were eating
will / can / may eat
would / could / might eat
has, have
had
has / have eaten
had eaten
Direct Speech (speaker’s words)
Indirect Speech (Reporter or Listener)
Present tense
Past perfect tense
was / were
had been
ate
had eaten
was / were eating
had been eating 

C. Expressions of time and place indicating nearness are changed into one of distance:
Direct Speech
Indirect Speech (Reported Speech)
Now
then
Today
that day
Tonight
that night
Yesterday
the previous day / the day before
Tomorrow
the next / following day
the day before yesterday
two days before
the day after tomorrow
in two days
last week
the previous week or the week before
last month
the previous month or the month before
last year
the previous year or the year before
next week / month / year
the following week / month / year
a week / month
a week / month
last night
the previous night
here
there
this / it
that
these
those
thus
so
ago
before




    I.        STATEMENTS:

Kind of Sentences
Reporting Verbs

Conjunctions




Statement
  said, told, suggested, admitted, remarked

  that



  A.   Ordinary statements:
Example:
Direct Speech
Rosy said, “I have a habit of reding before I go to bed”.
Indirect Speech
Rosy said that she had a habit of reading before she went to bed.

  B.  BbbbbbbbbWhen the reporting verb is in the present or   future tense there is no change in the tense of the reported clause:
Example:
Direct Speech
Sarah says, “I like kids”.
Indirect Speech
Sarah says that she likes kids.
CWhen the reporting verb is in the past tense the verb of the reported clause is changed into the corresponding past tense:
Example:
Direct Speech
Mohan said, “I have written a novel”.
Indirect Speech
Mohan said that he had written a novel.
 D. Present Progressive used as a future form becomes would be + present participle, not Past Progressive:
Example:
Direct Speech
She said, “I am seeing the dentist next week”.
Indirect Speech
She said that she would be seeing the dentist the following week.
 E.  Simple Past / past Progressive in adverb clauses of time do not usually change into the corresponding past tense:
Example:
Direct Speech
She said, “When I lived / was living in a village I faced a lot of hardships”.
Indirect Speech
She said that when shelived / was living in a village she faced a lot of hardships. (Don’t use had lived / had been living)
 F. Unreal past tense (subjunctive mood) after wish / it is time remains unchange:
Example:
Direct Speech
She said, “I wish I were an angel.”
Indirect Speech
She said that she wished she were an angel. (Don’t use had been)
 G.   Would rather / would sooner / had better remains unchanged:
Example:
Direct Speech
He said, “I would rather starve than beg.”
Indirect Speech
He said that he would rather starve than beg.
 H.   Verbs used in clauses expressing improbable or impossible condition remain unchanged:
Example:
Direct Speech
He said, “If won the election I would become a minister.”
Indirect Speech
He said that if he won the election he would become a minister.
 I.    When the direct speech expresses universal truth (fundamental truths of science) saying / provers / habitual action, the tense does not change:
Example:
Direct Speech
He said, “Habit is a second nature.”
Indirect Speech
He said that habit is a second nature.
  II.        QUESTIONS:
A.   The reporting verbs for questions are:
Kind of Sentences
Reporting Verbs
Conjunctions
Questions (1) W/H type
asked, enquired, wanted to know
if / whether
Questions (2) Verbal
asked, enquired, wanted
B.    Auxiliary questions should begin with:
if / whether
Direct Speech
My friend said, “Are they coming with us?”
Indirect Speech
My friend asked me whether they were coming with us.



C.    Do / Does / Did Questions:
When using;
do, does (present tense) - the main verb converts
into the past (does / do go -> went)
did (past tense) - the main verb converts
into past perfect. (did go -> had gone)
Direct Speech
“Does David study late at night?” said Sonia.
Indirect Speech
Sonia asked me whether David studied late at night.

D.   DD.D.DThe question form will change into a statement form:
“Is he here?”
Whether he was there
E.    W/h Questions:
These questions begin with a question word (Who, What, When, Why, Where, How, How long ...). While changing such a question into reported form we do not use any conjunction. We simply invert the word order (Verb + Subject is changed into Subject + Verb). Do not use if/whether in W/h Questions.
Verb + Subject
She said to me, “What do you want?”
Subject + Verb
She asked me what I wanted.

Direct Speech
My neighbour said, “when did the men catch the stray dogs”
Indirect Speech
My neighbour asked me when the men had caught the stray dogs.

F.    Verbal Questions:
These are questions begining with a verb. (Are you ready? Is it true?)
Here we use the conjunction ‘if’ or ‘whether’. The word order is changed as mentioned earlier.
Verb + Subject
She said to me, “Is Tom at home?”
Subject + Verb
Sh asked me if Tom was at home.
III.        COMMANDS / ORDER / IMPERATIVE SENTENCES
To report a command we can use a number of verbs
v  Reporting Verb:
Kind of Sentences
Reporting Verbs
Conjunctions
Commands & Requests
told, asked, requested, warned, advised, instructed, ordered
to - not to
We use the conjunction ‘to’. When the command is a negative one beginning with “Don’t” we change it to ‘not to’.
e.g:
Direct Speech
The Captain said, “Get ready to board the ship.”
Indirect Speech
The Captain commanded his sailors to get ready to board the ship.

v  Requests:
Please - requested + whom + to + v
Direct Speech
The teacher said, “Please improve your knowledge.”
Indirect Speech
The teacher requested the student to improve his knowledge.

IV.        Exclamations
Exclamations can be reported with adverbs of manner.
Kind of Sentences
Reporting Verbs
Conjunctions
Exclamations
exclaimed with joy /
exclaimed with sorrow
that
a)    Reporting Verb: exclaimed with (emotion)
Direct Speech
Rosy said to David, “How wonderfully you sang!”
Indirect Speech
Rosy exclaimed with happiness that David had sung wonderfully.
b)   The exclamation should be changed into a statement.
Direct Speech
The foreigner said, “What a man Obama is!.”
Indirect Speech
The foreigner exclaimed in wonder that Obama was a great man.
c)    Use suitable emotions to the exclamation.
Direct Speech
John said, “That I should see you here!”
Indirect Speech
John was surprised to see me there.





Alas!- exclaimed with sadness / regret / disappoinment.
Direct Speech
The reporter said, “Alas! Many lives have been lost due to tsunami”
Indirect Speech
The reporter exclaimed sadly that many lives had been lost due to tsunami.




May you!- blesses / wished.
Direct Speech
The grandmother said, “May you meet with success wherever you go
Indirect Speech
The grandmother blessed her grandson that he should meet with success wherever he goes.



Don’t / never - warned or forbade. (when using forbid do not use negatives)
Direct Speech
Father said, “Shakshi, don’t play in dirty water!”
Indirect Speech
Father forbade his daughter Sakshi to play in dirty water.



O God! - called upon God with regret / sadness / disappointment.
Direct Speech
The beggar said, “O God! I have been cheated”.
Indirect Speech
The beggar called upon God with regret that he had been cheated.